Cancer Prevention Institute


Screening and Prevention: Anal Cancer

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1. Guidelines for Screening


Risk Factors:


Human papilloma virus: (HPV-16, HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 33, and HPV 45) accounts for about 85 - 90% of anal cancers


Sexual activity: Multiple sex partners, particularly uncircumcised men, increase the risk of exposure to HPV due to the increased risk of exposure to the HPV virus by 17 fold, if their partners are infected with the HPV virus


Smoking: Current smokers have a fourfold increase in risk of developing anal cancer


Immunosuppression: This is often associated with HIV infection or transplantation


Benign anal lesions (inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhoids or fistula)


Anal intraepithelial neoplasia





Anal PAP smears (similar to those used in cervical cancer) for patients with risk factors. The test should be repeated yearly in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and every 2 - 3 years if the men are HIV-negative


Patients with abnormal results should be referred for a biopsy. If anal intraepithelial neoplasia is detected, this condition should be referred for treatment




2. Cancer Prevention


Use of condoms


Vaccination with Gardisil® before exposure to HPV prevents infection by some strains of HPV and has been shown to reduce the incidence of potentially precancerous lesions at other sites (cervix)



© Strang Cancer Prevention Institute




Strang Cancer Prevention Institute and Continuum Cancer Centers of New York, which are part of the Mount Sinai Health System, are collaborating to develop and update guidelines for cancer screening and best practices for cancer prevention. Strang is synonymous with cancer screening and prevention. Strang was the first medical facility to introduce the Pap test into clinical practice which has saved millions of women's lives worldwide. Strang was opened by first lady Eleanor Roosevelt in 1933.




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